Presently Jersey and Holstein Friesian are only used as exotic donor breeds for bull production.
Number of Proven bull/ F1 bulls/ imported bulls used for young bull production (2008-2017)
|Sl. No||Genetic Group||No. of bulls|
|1||Proven Sunandini – CJ||13|
|2||Proven Sunandini – CH||12|
Performance of bulls
|Breed||Breeding value (Mean)||Dam’s Yield (Mean, kg)|
|Proven Sunandini – CH||355.82||5306.27|
|Proven Sunandini – CJ||407.91||3814.23|
Pedigree of bulls
|Breed||No. of bulls||Average of Dam’s Yield||Min of Dam’s Yield (kg)||Max of Dam’s Yield(kg)|
Two lines of Sunandini would be developed based on the preponderance of exotic inheritance in the animals, viz Jersey line and Holstein line
Level of exotic inheritance being limited to around 50% in the small holding population. But the small farmers with good resources and farmers involved in commercial/semi commercial dairying are provided with semen of high value pure breed Holstein Friesian bulls (imported / imported sexed/ bulls procured from outside state) under close monitoring by the State Animal Husbandry Department and the Kerala Livestock Development Board (Germplasm from outside unauthorized sources are also coming inside the State which is hampering the States’ breeding programme)
Field Performance Recording area under progeny testing scheme expanded to Wayanad, Kannur and Kozhikode districts from 2014 onwards under National Dairy Plan.
Use of F1 bulls: To increase the genetic diversity in the population nine F1 bulls were used for bull production programme and introduced 22 F1 bulls for large scale AI Programme
Details of F1 Bulls
|Breed||No. of bulls||Dam breed|
|F1 CBJ||12||Red Sindhi, Sahiwal, Rathi, Kankrej|
|F1 CBHF||10||Rathi, Sahiwal, Kankrej, Red Sindhi|
Crossbred bulls of high genetic merit distributed by GOI from other parts of country are being used in the breeding programme. These bulls were produced in field conditions in other parts of country having similar agro-climatic conditions.
Details of HGM Bulls purchased by KLDB
|State||Agency||No. of bulls Procured||Breed||Average of DAM 305 DMY (kg)|
|NDP Kerala||KLDB CBHF||5||CBHF||5555.8|
In addition pure HF and pure Jersey bull calves are procured from KMF, Karnataka and CCBF Chiplima, Orissa respectively.
Import of germplasm
Sire’s daughters’ average standard lactation yield above 9000 kg in the case of HF and 6000 kg in the case of Jersey.
Sire’s daughters’ average milk fat above 3.5% or above 315 kg for standard lactation yield in the case of HF; and above 4.5% or above 270 kg in the case of Jersey.
Details of Import
Imported 5 HF bulls from Germany and 4 Jersey bulls from Denmark under NDP during 2015 & 2017.
|Breed||Source||No. of bulls||Dam’s Yield (kg)|
** One Jersey bull selected genomically and hence mean of three bulls only given
Imported 59000 doses from USA and Canada ( 13000 FSD in 2011, 6000 FSD in 2014 and 40000 FSD in 2017)
Sex Sorted Semen
- 16650 female sex sorted semen imported (650 FSD in 2014 and 16000 in 2017)
- Field application trials conducted in five AI centres of State AHD in Palakkad district
- Distribution to selected AI centres/ districts being arranged
- Purchase order issued for import of 350 nos of HF Embryos from Canada
- Purchase order issued for import of 150 nos of Jersey Embryos from Canada
Parentage test using molecular technology to confirm their pedigree – All bull calves born in NDP PT area subjected to parentage verification.
|Wrong parentage (nos)||0||0||0||0|
|Wrong parentage (%)||0||0||0||0|
|Wrong parentage (nos)||9||30||29||68|
|Wrong parentage (%)||10.3||20.7||21.3||18.2|
Embryo technology is also employed in the production of breeding bulls used for AI in the State.
Crossbred donors – Milk Yield (Min.) 4500 kg./lact.
The details are as follows.
|Unit||Number of successful transfers||Male calves born||Bulls selected|
Semen Production Stations in the State:
- All three semen stations of the state (Mattupatti, Dhoni & Kulathupuzha) are graded as “A” by Central Monitoring Unit constituted by the GOI continuously during 2014 & 2016.
- All three stations have ISO 9001:2008 & HACCP certifications
Quality Control in Frozen Semen Distribution
- Seven Regional Semen Banks in the State, one each to cater the needs of two districts.
- The checking of quality of the semen doses at the level of the Regional Semen banks before being distributed to the AI centers is done regularly.
- Random sample checking of semen doses from the field AI centers is being done.
Details of random sample checking of FSD at field level (2016-17)
|District||No. of samples||Average of Motility %|
Printing and distribution of Bull rotation programme to all AI centres in the state is being arranged by KLDB
Printing of Standard Operating Procedures for AI technicians (developed by the Government of India) in Malayalam and distribution to all AI centres in the state by KLDB
Minimum Standards for Production (MSP) of frozen semen prescribed by the Government of India is abided by all the three frozen semen production stations in all their activities. All the three semen station are graded as “A” by CMU
Farmer’s awareness programmes and periodic farmer training programmes with emphasis on improved management of dairy animals to maximize the expression of genetic potentials are being conducted.
Farmer’s camps being conducted under various CSS like NPCBB, NPBB, NDP, RKVY and also under State Plan Scheme
Calf rallies being organized in NDP PT area.
Exposure visit to farms were organized for Elite cow farmers in KLDB PT area.
Refresher Trainng for all AI technicians (Veterinarians, Paravets, Private AIT) being arranged regularly by KLDB.
Fodder Production Programme
The feed resources available from existing agricultural practices meet roughly 40% of the dairy industry requirement of green and dry fodder. With increased crossbreeding, the physical stature of the animals has improved considerably and as a result, the demand for feed and fodder has further increased. Government has been giving special focus on fodder and feed production to bridge the gap in the demand and supply of feed and fodder. The Dairy Development Department is the nodal agency for fodder development activities in the State.
Availability, Requirement and Surplus/Deficit of Dry Matter
Source: Dairying in Kerala – A Statistical Profile 2016, NDDB
KLD Board is also taking up different programmes for development of Fodder in the State
Kudumbashree linked fodder production & Establishment of Fodder demonstration Plots
- Establish 500 model forage units in selected districts where cattle populations are high and Kudumbasree units are active per year.
- Financial support of Rs.16000/- per acre provided.
- Each unit of the forage centre will comprise of 1 acre of land established with high producing forage crops.
- 200 no’s of selected farmers will be imparted short-term training in cultivation, conservation & utilization of forage crops and who in turn would disseminate the forage growing techniques to other farmers.
- KLDB also establishes 140 pilot fodder demonstration units in the state.
During the last five years, about 2500 acres of fodder were established with the cooperation of the Kudumbashree units in the state and about 685 farmers trained in fodder cultivation practices.
Minikit Seed Distribution Scheme
|Sl. No||Years||Quantity of Fodder seeds (MT)|
Special Livestock Breeding Programme
Implemented by the State Animal Husbandry Department. The programme has been expanded to cover all the areas under progeny testing incorporating all the female calves born to test bulls. Enrolled 73538 female calves under the programme and planned to enroll 35000 more during 2017-18.
Buffalo breeding – grading up programme for buffaloes with Murrah is continued using superior bulls procured from the native tract of Murrah. Murrah bulls are being sourced from Central Herd Registration Scheme areas of the Government of India.
Goat Breeding – Malabari breed is used for large scale AI programme. KLDB is producing frozen buck semen doses and distributing them to around 1000 AI centers in the State along with AI crate, headlamp, vaginal speculum, etc. for field AI. AI technicians are also provided training in goat AI by KLDB.
Details of Malabari buck semen Production and distribution
|Year||No. of semen doses produced||No. of semen doses distributed|
CONSERVATION AND PROPAGATION
Kerala Livestock Development Board is implementing different programmes to conserve and propagate indigenous/non-descript breeds of cattle in Kerala.
1) Indigenous Livestock farm, Puthur (Thrissur District)
- KLDB is conserving indigenous cows in its Livestock Farm at Puthur, Thrissur district. The farm houses cows different indigenous/non descript breeds of cattle.
- Vechur cows are also maintained at Mattupatti (6 No’s) & Kulathupuzha (8 No’s) for Embryo Production purpose.
Total number of indigenous cows maintained in KLDB Farms is as follows:
|Kasargode Dwarf||22 No’s|
2) Production and Distribution of Frozen Semen of Indigenous/Non descript breeds of cattle
KLDB also maintains breeding bulls of the following indigenous/non descript breeds of cattle and is distributing frozen semen of these breeds to all the AI centres that indent it for inseminating females in their area. The frozen semen is being distributed free of cost to the farmers.
Vechur 10 No’s
Kasargode Dwarf 8 No’s
Gir 2 No’s
The details of production and distribution of frozen semen in Kerala from the indigenous/non descript breeds of cattle is as follows:
(up to October 2017)
The distribution of semen doses has increased in the recent years in the State, which indicates that the number of indigenous/nondescript breeds of cattle in the state is increasing.
3) Embryo Transfer in Vechur Cows
Government of India had approved a scheme on “Embryo Transfer in Indigenous cows” for Kerala involving Vechur and Sahiwal breeds with a total outlay of ₹ 2.48 crores For the first time, we could get A grade embryo’s from Vechur breed. A total of 10 embryos were recovered from 3 Vechur donors and 9 viable embryos were transferred into recipients. (This is the first case of embryo recovery from Vechur breed and transfer in the State)
KLDB is implementing the scheme as per the approved guidelines of the scheme.
4) Farmer Oriented Programmes
i) Providing one time financial support to farmers
In order to motivate farmers for rearing indigenous breeds of cattle and increase population of indigenous breeds in the state, KLD Board is providing one time financial assistance of Rs.10,000/- to the farmers maintaining pure indigenous cattle of Vechur and Kasargode Dwarf breeds under the provisions of Rashtriya Gokul Mission, a project fully financed by G.O.I. Wide publicity was given for the project and this had attracted the attention of the farmers. Many farmers have started to maintain these dwarf breeds of cattle, which requires low maintenance cost and at the same time their milk (even though low in quantity) had been proved to have medicinal qualities.
ii) Field performance recording of the indigenous animals of the state
NBAGR has recognized only Vechur as the cattle breed of the state. Only a few animals are available in the breeding tracts. The Kasaragode Dwarf cattle are also an important genetic group of cattle indigenous to the state. Since the distribution of these animals is not in a contiguous area and the milk yield ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 liters/day, only a single day milk recording is possible. Using the single day yield , the standard lactation yields of the animals will be computed. The details of the animals enrolled for milk recording and the total number of completed milk recordings are detailed below
iii) Procurement of male calves from the FPR areas
The superior female animals of the FPR areas were selected and inseminated with the frozen semen of the best indigenous breeding bulls. The male calves born out of the nominated mating were examined and the phenotypically sound male calves were procured from the farmers and reared in our farms up to maturity after observing strict quarantine norms. The details of the male calves procured from the FPR area is given in the below table
Out of the procured bulls, 16 Vechur bulls and 20 Kasaragode dwarf bulls have been inducted for semen production at our sperm stations. More over we have purchased 2 Gir bulls from SAG, Bidag and 3 Red Sindhi bulls from Chiplima. Adequate quantities of semen produced from these bulls are made available for field distribution.
iv) Awards to Farmers /Institutions maintaining indigenous/ND animals
a) National Awards
In order to motivate farmers for rearing of indigenous breeds and increase population of indigenous breeds along with their production and productivity the following awards are instituted under the Rashtriya Gokul Mission by GOI
• “Gopal Ratna” Awards: to Farmers maintaining the best herd of Indigenous Breed(s) and practicing best management practices and
• “Kamadhenu” Awards: to Best managed Indigenous Herd by Institutions/Trusts/ NGOs/ Gaushalas or best managed Breeders’ Societies.
The State Government had constituted the State Nomination Committee comprising of the following officers:
• Secretary, Animal Husbandry (Chair person)
• Director, Animal Husbandry Department , Member
• Managing Director , Milk Federation, Member
• Representative of the State Veterinary University/ College , Member
• Representative of ICAR institute (CIRB, CIRC ,NBAGR) Member
• Representative of DADF- CCBF/ CHRS, Member
• Managing Director, KLDB (Member Convener)
M/s Amrithadhara Gaushala, Pathanamthitta District (Farmer Sri. Ajayakumar) had secured the 2nd prize in the South Zone, National Kamadhenu Award and the award was distributed to him by the Hon. Union Minister for Agriculture & Farmers Welfare
b) State Awards
In order to motivate farmers for rearing of indigenous breeds and increase population of indigenous breeds along with their production and productivity, following awards are instituted by State Government
- “State Gopal Ratna” Awards: to Farmers maintaining the best herd of Indigenous Breed(s) and practicing best management practices and
- “State Kamadhenu” Awards: to Best managed Indigenous Herd by Institutions/Trusts/ NGOs/ Gaushalas or best managed Breeders’ Societies.
Field study on Quality of Frozen Semen
Apart from Kerala, KLDB has been distributing frozen semen in Tamilnadu, Puducherry and other neighbouring states. The generic feedback received from the users of frozen semen distributed by KLD. Board has been positive. However, in order to get the exact feedback about the performance, a study was conducted through LEAD College of Management, Palakkad at Erode, Salem, Pollachi and Cuddalore districts of Tamilnadu and Puducherry.
Findings of the Study
- 80% of the inseminators from Puducherry and Erode, Salem have opined that the overall performance is ranging between 80-90%.
- When compared to frozen semen produced by other agencies in the country, the inseminators mostly prefer KLD Board semen.
- 80% of the respondents of Erode and Salem districts have high regard about the conception rate of KLDB supplied frozen semen, which ranges from 70-80’%, and the rest 20- 30’% of the respondents say that the conception rate is low depending on the feed, and climatic conditions.
The study clearly brings out that the overall performance of the frozen semen distributed by KLDB, seems to be good and almost all the veterinarians and private inseminators in these areas prefer KLD Board Semen.
Artificial insemination centers
Regarding breeding support, there are 2958 artificial insemination centers out of which:
|Established by||No. of Centers|
|Animal Husbandry Department||2939|
|Dairy Development Department||5|